Feb 23, 2018
I come to our topic today with mixed feelings. We have talked about it on numerous occasions and written about it in our books. It’s a topic that lends itself to some data-based analysis, but I have to say that it also causes me to think about my own philosophy about academics and what is important and what isn’t. So, this is a big topic, and it is college majors.
As I have been working with students during this round of college applications, I listen to them talk about choosing colleges to apply to because those colleges have good departments in this or that--whatever they think they want to major in, at this point in their young lives. Often these kids want to become doctors--doesn’t everyone?--and I listen to them talk about the biology departments and the research opportunities that the colleges on their lists have. And I wonder how many of them will still be pre-med by the time they are sophomores. At the other extreme are the kids who believe they have a wide variety of academic interests and want to find colleges where they can pursue all of them. One recent experience I had was with a student who talked with equal enthusiasm about chemistry, music, business, and one or two others I can’t even remember. One of my most interesting students this year talked about majoring in Czech as a tribute to her grandfather’s heritage (by the way, she was already taking Czech courses outside of school at the local consulate); that is one of my favorite stories ever.
Rarely do I think their college major choices will stick (though I am secretly pulling for the Czech major).
Two articles I have read recently caused me to think about this topic from a couple of other perspectives, so let’s explore them.
Let me open with a premise from an article I read way back last September, an article which I have been saving for the perfect episode. Writing in U.S. News & World Report, education reporter Lauren Camera opened with this:
When it comes to choosing college majors – a crucial decision that lays the groundwork for future employment and earnings – students often rely on the least reliable sources for advice: family and friends.
Work colleagues and employers are among the best sources of information for students seeking advice about choosing a major. But according to a new survey by Gallup and Strada Education Network, . . . they are the least utilized.
“This causes us to rethink the entire college advice mechanism,” Brandon Busteed, executive director of education and workforce development at Gallup, says. “There is a lot of pretty bad advice out there.”
When choosing a major field of study, the survey shows, students most commonly sought advice from “informal social networks.” In fact, more than half of adults, or 55 percent, with an associate degree, some college or a bachelor’s degree depended on their social network for advice about choosing a major, most frequently from friends and family.
The next most commonly consulted source of advice, which 44 percent of people reported considering, was college and high school counselors, as well as media-based information. The least consulted group, which 20 percent reported consulting, were work-based networks, including former employers and work colleagues. (quoted from the article)
None of this is surprising. I think the data would be about the same if you asked people how they chose the colleges they applied to; most would say they relied on family and friends for advice--who, by the way, are equally unreliable as a source of appropriate colleges.
And, of course, how can high school seniors really consult with employers and work colleagues about the choice of a major when lots of them are not working at all and the rest are working part time, mostly in places they hope to get out of by going to college. So, what does the report recommend? Ms. Camera’s article says this:
The report recommends relying less on high school and college counselors, who are overworked and often responsible for an unrealistic number of students, and more on potential employers and faculty members.
“Taken together, the challenges facing the formal channels of student guidance suggest that retooling the traditional model of advising to fit the changing needs of students could bolster its effectiveness,” the report reads. (quoted from the article)
All of that is interesting, but I think it is more likely to work for students already in college than for high schoolers thinking about a future college major choice. And, of course, the liberal arts enthusiast in me, which our regular listeners know from previous episodes, still wonders whether college does have to be all about getting a future career--though I have to admit that even I said to my student, “What would you ever do with that Czech major?”
Carol D’Amico, executive vice president of mission advancement and philanthropy at Strada Education Network, was quoted in the article as saying this:
“We know your choice of major is not necessarily the choice of career, but it puts you on a pathway and commits you to a pathway. . . . Most everyone who goes to higher education these days say they are going to launch a career. That’s a fact. So how do we become much more intentional about getting them to their desired career?” (quoted from the article)
I wish it weren’t so, but perhaps it. I am certainly willing to put students on a pathway, but I am far less willing to commit students to a pathway. I believe that most liberal arts majors give students a choice of many different pathways and that the student’s choice can change over time precisely because of that liberal arts background. But that’s a different episode.
So, let’s move on to something that everyone always says to kids, but that I never saw any actual data about until recently—that is, how many kids change their majors once they are in college. Last December, Doug Lederman wrote an article for Inside Higher Ed, which asked and answered the question posed in his headline: “Who Changes Majors? (Not Who You Think).” Here is the whole answer:
[A] brief report from the Education Department’s National Center for Education Statistics, drawn from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study, finds that 33 percent of bachelor’s degree pursuers who entered college in 2011-12 and 28 percent of students in associate degree programs had changed their major at least once by 2014.
About one in 10 had changed majors twice. (quoted from the article)
Well, there you have it: About one-third of college students change their majors, and that’s enough so that your kid shouldn’t feel uncomfortable about doing the same thing in the next year or two. I am all for that, speaking as someone who changed her major in the first month of college (that shows you how well prepared I was, and I am quite sure that I never got any advice from anyone when choosing either my original major or my final major, perhaps more’s the pity).
For all the kids who think they want to be science majors, here are a few more statistics from Mr. Lederman’s article:
Students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics programs were likelier than those in non-STEM fields (35 versus 29 percent) to change majors.
And students who started out studying math were likeliest of all: 52 percent of those who initially declared as math majors ended up majoring in something else, followed by 40 percent of those in the natural sciences, 37 percent in education, 36 percent in humanities disciplines and 32 percent in engineering and general studies. . . . (quoted from the article)
Truly, I am not sure that there is much practical significant difference between 35 percent in STEM fields and 29 percent in non-STEM fields changing majors--or among 40 percent in natural sciences, 37 percent in education, 36 percent in humanities disciplines, and even 32 percent in engineering and general studies. However, apart from relative comparisons of one major to another, it does seem like changes in majors by 52 percent of mathematics majors and 40 percent of natural science majors might be worth noting. Mr. Lederman’s article gives a number of plausible explanations for the abandonment of mathematics, which you are welcome to go read.
So, what’s the point? It is simply that I want your kid to be very careful this spring when choosing a college to attend. Where did your kid get his or her idea about what to major in? Was it a well-informed choice? Does the major have a future, either in a specific career field or in something that can serve as the underpinning for many career fields? Given the statistics, basing the choice of a college on a potential major (assuming your kid is lucky enough to have some good options available once the acceptances come in) might not be the best thinking. In other words, choosing to attend one college over another largely because of a great biology department, when you think you are going to be pre-med, might not be the best decision.
I know we all have struggled with the college application questions that ask for a kid’s major--and sometimes even for a back-up major! I know we have struggled with the college application essays about why that major is particularly interesting to the kid. I have certainly helped lots of kids write lots of those essays. Here is what I always said to them: This essay is an exercise in presenting yourself in an appealing and persuasive way to this college. You should not think of it as an irrevocable promise that you are going to pursue this major that you are writing about.
And so, help your kid understand that he or she might want to change that major, perhaps more than once, and that making such a change is okay with you and even okay with the college.
What are the exceptions, and there are always some? Obviously, there are kids who have applied to a specialized school, like a music school in a larger university, or kids who have auditioned for and applied to a specific arts-related school or program, like dance or studio art. These are kids who have devoted a lot of their young lives to their talent and, if they are accepted, are very likely going to choose a college because of that particular program. That is perfectly reasonable. But, as it turns out, even those kids can change their minds; and, if they do, being in a specialized school within a larger university might be useful if it comes time to reconsider their choices.